black politics

black politics
   ‘Black’ as a political construction derives from the protracted race struggles of the 1950s and 1960s onwards. A contentious term criticized for its simplistic reduction to an implicit ethnic dualism of black and white, ‘black’ has conversely functioned as a unifying term of empowerment among ‘ethnic minority’ groups to describe the commonality of their historical oppression, marginalization, personal and institutionalized racist experiences.
   Black politics have been organized around the loosely successive phases of New Commonwealth immigration, settlement, protest and an active involvement in community and mainstream politics. The Commonwealth Immigration Bill (1962) and Race Relations Act (1965) (see Race Relations Acts) initiated the black immigration control and antidiscrimination legislation which has illustrated conflicting state attitudes to race. Govern-mentsanctioned organizations like the Community Relations Councils (later the Commission for Racial Equality) coexisted alongside numerous politicized black welfare and cultural groups autonomously mobilized at an urban and grassroots level. Larger organizations such as the nationwide and left-wing Indian Workers Association (IWA) provided practical and legal support and advice for newly arrived and settled Indian migrants. The Campaign Against Racial Discrimination (1965) and Black People’s Alliance (1968) enlisted the support of black representative groups in conglomerate fronts against racism.
   During the racially polarized 1960s, Black Power groups like Black Unity and Michael X’s Racial Adjustment Action Society (RAAS) offset Powellist politics and heralded the more confrontational tone of the 1970s. Industrial action protesting against exploitative migrant labour proliferated, while racist killings, conflict and the National Front led to the formation of the Anti- Nazi League (ANL) and youth organizations such as Southall Youth Movement (SYM). Riots including Notting Hill (1976), Southall (1979), St Paul’s and Brixton (1981) and Broadwater Farm (1985) demonstrated the swollen social and political disaffection among black communities (see riots and civil disobedience).
   The 1980s anti-racism and racial equality campaigns accompanied the election of four black Labour candidates to Parliament in 1987: Diane Abbot, Paul Boateng, Bernie Grant and Keith Vaz. However, the formation of the Labour Party black sections and the black Conservatives created controversy over their ‘ghettoization’ of black political interests, with the ascendancy of the ethnic right (such as the Muslim Parliament) also exposing the inadequate representation of black interests in mainstream politics. Yet from grassroots activism to its gradual integration into the racialized political mainstream, black political concerns are gradually emerging as an irrepressible force.
   Further reading
    Gilroy, P. (1987) There Ain’t No Black in the Union Jack, London: Routledge (a classic cultural study conveying the complexities of race and nationhood).
   SATINDER CHOHAN

Encyclopedia of contemporary British culture . . 2014.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Black Cabinet — The Black Cabinet was first known as the Federal Council of Negro Affairs, an informal group of African American public policy advisors to United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was supported by the first lady Eleanor Roosevelt. By mid …   Wikipedia

  • Black populism — Following the collapse of Reconstruction, African Americans created a broad based independent political movement in the South: black populism that influence all people in the nation especially the North. BeginningsBetween 1886 and 1898 Black… …   Wikipedia

  • black Conservatives —    Which major political party has been most accessible to people from ethnic minorities has been the subject of much debate. In 1987, four black Labour MPs became the first to be elected to Parliament for sixty years, despite the fact that more… …   Encyclopedia of contemporary British culture

  • Black Power — is a racially based political slogan and a name for various associated ideologies. [This is advanced by three groups: nihilists, integrationists, and separatists. For more see, Scott, J. W. (1976). The black revolts: racial stratification in the… …   Wikipedia

  • Black Power — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Richard Wrigh, autor del libro Black Power Black Power (Poder negro) es un eslogan político y el término asociado a varias ideologías asociadas al mismo.[1 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Black Metal — Entstehungsphase: 1980er Jahre Herkunftsort: Hauptsächlich Europa Stilistische Vorläufer Thrash Metal Pionierba …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Black feminism — argues that sexism, class oppression, and racism are inextricably bound together. [cite web|url=http://www.feministezine.com/feminist/modern/Defining Black Feminist Thought.html|title=Defining Black Feminist Thought|accessmonthday=May… …   Wikipedia

  • Black conservatism — is an international political and social movement rooted in communities of African descent that aligns largely with the conservative movement. It emphasizes patriotism, independence and self help, free enterprise, and strong cultural conservatism …   Wikipedia

  • Black Holes and Revelations — Studio album by Muse Released …   Wikipedia

  • Black Sea Fleet — sleeve ensign Navies of Russia Imperial Russia …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”